Excerpt from the original article.
Background of GBR
Nutrition of sprouted grains has been studied since decades ago. Finney (1978 ) showed enhancement of wheat and soybean seeds if they were sprouted. Tkachuk (1979) also found similar situation in wheat. Saikusa, Horino and Mori (1994) found that aminobutyric acid (GABA) increased dramatically if brown rice is soaked in 40 degrees in Celsius water for 8 hours to 24 hours. Okada et al. (2000) reported that intake of GABA for 8 consecutive weeks suppressed blood pressure and improved sleeplessness, and autonomic disorder observed during the menopausal or presenile period. More recently, Jeon et al. (2003) found that GBR may be effective for suppressing liver damage. In Japan, people in the ancient era may have been eating brown rice soaked (Kayahara, 2003).
GBR was established for marketing in Japan in 1995. GBR products were developed and marketed first by Domer Co. (Ueda City, Nagano Pref.) and the city government, Mino-cho of Kagawa Pref., was one of the earliest organizations engaged in the production of GBR. It is now produced by several private companies including agricultural cooperatives. During the last decade, 49 items related to GBR have been patented. The method to make GBR is quite simple. Soak the brown rice for one night or two depending on temperature and they are sprouted. This process make the internal minerals change, and the brown rice becomes more nutritious, easier to chew and tastier.
Contribution of GBR to Health
Eating brown rice became popular in Japan back in the 1970’s. That was because of rich fiber and other nutrients contained in the brown rice. However, the popularity did not last long due to the fact that brown rice had to be cooked in the pressure cooker and was still hard to chew and less tasty. GBR overcame the problem. It can be cooked in an ordinary rice cooker and is soft enough to chew even for children. Further, an added benefit is the fact that GBR is much more nutritious.
During the process of being sprouted, nutrients in the brown rice change drastically. Various types of analyses on Germinated brown rice have been conducted in Japan. Those major nutrients that increase in content in the GBR are aminobutyric acid (GABA), dietary fiber, inositols, ferulic acid, phytic acid, tocotrienols, magnesium, potassium, zinc, oryzanol, and prolylendopeptidase inhibitor (Kayahara and Tukahara, 2000). Kayahara and Tsukahara indicate that volume of nutrients contained in GBR relative to milled rice are 10 times for GABA, nearly 4 times for dietary fiber, vitamin E, niacine and lysine, and about 3 times for vitamin B1 and B6, and Magnesium (Fig. 1). Accordingly, they conclude that continuous intake of GBR is good for accelerating metabolism of brain, preventing headache, relieving constipation, preventing cancer of colon, regulating blood sugar level, preventing heart disease, lowering blood pressure as well as preventing Alzheimer’s disease (Table 1).
Table 2 shows the results of analyses on nutrients contained in GBR relative to the situation of brown rice before germination. In these analyses, we selected not only Japanese rice but also California medium grains (Calrose and M401 varieties) and Vietnamese long grains (ordinary grains and jasmine rice). Through many chemical analyses, it was indicated that level of moisture and length of period after harvest influence whether the brown rice can be sprouted or not. These two factors appear to influence the magnitude of change in nutrients.
Therefore, those two items are shown in the table as well. The results of the analyses indicate that there is a significant change in profiles of free amino acids for all brown rice as they get sprouted. GABA increased from 3.6 to 6.1 for the Vietnamese ordinary long grain despite the extremely low germination rate. GABA in Calrose increased more than two times from 4.9 to 10.9 and for M401 more than three times from 2.7 to 9.8 with germination rates of 90% and 56%, respectively. For the Japanese Koshihikari and Hitomebore varieties, GABA increased from 7.6 to 16.6 and from 10.5 to 13.6, respectively, with high germination rates.
Shoichi Ito and Yukihiro Ishikawa Tottori University, Japan
FAO International Rice Year, 2004 Symposium Rome, Italy February 12, 2004
Related news :
Soaked brown rice is better for you
ABC Science Online Tuesday, 19 December 2000
A team of Japanese scientists has found that germinating brown rice by soaking it for several hours before it is cooked – enhances its already high nutritional value.The findings were presented last week at the 2000 International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies.
Germinated rice contains much more fibre than conventional brown rice, say the researchers, three times the amount of the essential amino acid lysine, and ten times the amount of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), another amino acid known to improve kidney function.
The researchers also found that brown rice sprouts – tiny buds less than a millimetre tall – contain a potent inhibitor of an enzyme called protylendopetidase, which is implicated in Alzheimer’s disease.
They determined that germination activates enzymes that liberate additional nutrients.
“The birth of a sprout activates dormant enzymes in the brown rice all at once to supply the best nutrition to the growing sprout,” explained Dr Hiroshi Kayahara, the lead investigator on the project, and a biochemist from Shinshu University in Nagano, Japan.
Rice, whether brown or white, is a major part of most Asian diets, often eaten with nearly every meal, however the Western diet tends to contain a lot less rice.
To make the rice sprout, the researchers soaked it in water at 32 degrees C for 22 hours. The outer bran layer softened and absorbed water easily, making the rice easier to cook. Cooked sprouted rice has a sweet flavor, the researchers report, because the liberated enzymes break down some of the sugar and protein in the grain.
White rice will not germinate using this process, notes Kayahara.
China, India and Indonesia – home to nearly half of the world’s people – are the world leaders in rice production. Expanding populations throughout Asia will require rice production to increase by about a third over the next 20 years, according to the Rice Foundation.
The weeklong International Chemical Congress is sponsored jointly by the American Chemical Society, the Chemical Society of Japan, the Canadian Society of Chemistry, the Royal Australian Chemical Institute, and the New Zealand Institute of Chemistry.